This book contributes to the discourse on planning theory by accentuating the perspective of public innovation. Extending planning theory's traditional two major perspectives - 'Communicate' and 'Calculate' - the book argues that contemporary planning theory should incorporate 'Innovate' as a third perspective. It highlights the multitude of new perspectives that innovative planning can bring to bear on planning theory, as well as showing how the interplay between the three perspectives - 'Communicate', 'Calculate' and 'Innovate' - can help to address vital issues in contemporary societal development.
Aksel Hagen is Associate Professor at the Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences. He has been a planner at the local and regional level for seven years and served for more than 20 years as an elected representative in Norway.
Ulla Higdem is Professor at the Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences. Her research interests include new and changing forms of directing, steering (governance) and planning, innovative networks and policy innovation and processes for regional and local planning and development, and partnership in a democratic perspective.